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Top 10 Cryptography Terminology Everybody Should Know

List of useful Cryptographic Terms which everybody should know.

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Cryptography is the science of writing in secret code and is an ancient art; the first documented use of cryptography in writing dates back to circa 1900 B.C. when an Egyptian scribe used non-standard hieroglyphs in an inscription. Some experts argue that cryptography appeared spontaneously sometime after writing was invented, with applications ranging from diplomatic missives to war-time battle plans. It is no surprise, then, that new forms of cryptography came soon after the widespread development of computer communications.

Read More Here: What is Cryptography?

Before we can begin learning more about Cryptography, its types, and goals, in general, we must be aware of some terminologies which are very essential. Following are some of the most important terms related to cryptography and you should know it,

1. Cryptology

Cryptology is the mathematics, such as number theory, and the application of formulas and algorithms, that underpin cryptography and cryptanalysis. Since the cryptanalysis concepts are highly specialized and complex, we concentrate here only on some of the key mathematical concepts behind cryptography. Cryptology can also be defined as the science of the study of, or the use of, methods and procedures for translating and interpreting codes and ciphers; cryptanalysis. Therefore, Cryptology is consists of two parts: a) Cryptography b) Cryptanalysis.

2. Cryptography

Cryptography is a greek word which literally means “secret writing”. Cryptography refers to the art of transforming data and messages to make them secure and immune to attacks. Cryptography can also is defined as the art of protecting information by transforming it (encrypting it) into an unreadable format, called cipher text. Only those who possess a secret key can decipher (or decrypt) the message into plain text.

3. Cryptanalysis

Cryptanalysis (from the Greek kryptós, “hidden”, and analýein, “to loosen” or “to untie”) is the art and science of analyzing information systems in order to study the hidden aspects of the systems. Cryptanalysis is used to breach cryptographic security systems and gain access to the contents of encrypted messages, even if the cryptographic key is unknown.

4. Cipher

A mapping algorithm that is applied to a fixed number of characters at a time with an intent of concealing the contents of the message.

5. Encryption

The science of turning plaintext text into enciphered text often using a key and a particular cryptographic algorithm.

6. Decryption

The science of turning enciphered text into plain text without prior knowledge of the algorithms or keys involved. This is what the interceptor or ‘cracker’ does.

7. Key

A word or phrase that modifies the enciphering/deciphering process in such a way that knowledge of the algorithm alone is insufficient to decipher an enciphered message.

8. Plaintext

The original message to be encoded or enciphered.

9. Steganography

The art of concealing a message’s existence. One example would be through the use of photographic microdots.

10. Transmission Security

The art of concealing an electrically transmitted message through burst encoding or spread spectrum methods.

If you think we should include more or change the definition of a particular term them comment below.

Source GaryKessler

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